Benjamin L. Stewart
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How can a teacher decide whether to break down the input into step-by-step activities or start by challenging students by asking them to perform a task where input proficiency is required? (Bottom up, top down, task based, structural content based)
Task-based supplementation: Achieving high school textbook goals through form focused interaction: Conclusions: “Results” have historically been defined and measured by “objective” language tests - standardized tests. However, focusing strictly on form (not meaning, use, discourse, culture, etc.) ignores the fact that we have no true way of knowing exactly what a learner does specifically that leads to language acquisition. Also, a learners’ internal grammar goes up and down… down in the case when internalizing new content.
Conclusions: Task-based learning extremely effective when attending the personal, affective, and social development of the learner.
Instructional-learning episodes: reproductive (less complex)-productive (more complex), knowledge-skill, metacognition-cognition, far (new context)-near (similar context) transfer
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